For more than a hundred years, a special commission annually selects Nobel laureates – the best chemists, physicists, physiologists, writers, economists. Often it seems to us that we are talking about an inaccessible world of science, and a bit of art, which is extremely difficult for a simple person to reach. Together with Nobilitet, we will try to prove that all these difficulties in the learning process can lead to something simple and familiar for the average person. We recall important discoveries that not only contributed to science, but also received practical application in human life.
What does modern man value most? Information and speed of its receipt. In 2009, Charles Cuen Cao received the Nobel Prize in Physics for “revolutionary advances in the transmission of light in fibers for optical communications.” Simply put, the scientist’s invention allowed a breakthrough in the development of television and the advent of the Internet, as we know it today. In 1966, Kao came to the conclusion that high-purity optical fibers made of glass can carry information much longer than electronic communications. The scientist shared his knowledge with American and Chinese telecommunications corporations, taught a lot, actively promoting fiber as the most promising means of high-speed information transfer. And woe to those who did not listen to Khao, without the development of which now both cars and spaceships can not do.
The heart of gadgets
In 2019, the Nobel Prize in chemistry was shared by John Goodenough of the University of Texas at Austin, the British scientist Stanley Whittinham of the University of Binghamton and Akira Yoshino of the private Japanese University. All these people are involved in the development and improvement of lithium-ion batteries, without which we would not be able to use mobile phones, laptops and other portable equipment. In addition to the application here and now, the invention of a group of scientists has the potential to provide humanity with clean energy, since lithium-ion batteries have the ability to save a significant amount of it received from the sun or wind.
World in color
It is human nature to keep a memory of certain events, dear people, or simply bright moments of life. In the era of Instagram, photography grew into documenting time, perhaps it lost some solemnity, but it acquired the status of necessity and habit. For what is now carried out with the click of a button on a smartphone, once there was a series of serious scientific research and even the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physics “For creating a method of photographic color reproduction based on the phenomenon of interference”. Gabriel Jonas Lippman, a scientist from Luxembourg, created the technology of colorless color photography. In order not to operate with too complicated concepts, we note that Lippman came up with the use of gelatin-silver photosensitive material, with the help of which pictures were obtained with incredible color reproduction accuracy. The development of a physicist was too expensive for circulation photography, but it became the basis for the development of holography.
By studying the list of Nobel Prize winners in physiology and medicine, you can take a fascinating journey into the past, where discoveries were made that saved millions of lives. Serum therapy in the treatment of diphtheria, insulin, penicillin – with their help, mankind could, if not completely defeat, then take control of complex diseases.
From sore throat and scarlet fever, meningitis and biliary tract infections, sinusitis and anthrax, it will help – an antibiotic obtained from the penicillium mold. For the discovery of its healing effects in various infectious diseases in 1945, the Ernst Boris Chain and Howard Walter Flory received the Nobel Prize. In fairness, we note that penicillin was discovered back in 1897, not to mention that the healing properties of green mold were well known to the ancient Egyptians and Greeks. But before Cheyne and Flory, it was all a “make plantain” game. Scientists have created a technology for purifying a substance and its industrial production. On February 12, 1941, for the first time, penicillin was injected intravenously. The result, and this was the treatment of progressive sepsis, exceeded all expectations, although the patient could not be saved due to lack of medicine. This proved the importance of the discovery of Chen and Flory, in which today no one doubts even more so.
A glass for biochemistry!
It's hard to believe, but at the beginning of the twentieth century, scientists broke spears, figuring out how yeast can turn sugar into alcohol. In their ignorance, they endowed unicellular mushrooms with miraculous properties until the German chemist Eduard Buchner discovered extracellular fermentation, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1907 and the unspoken title of the founder of biochemistry. He proved that the yeast contains a certain element, a substance that causes the fermentation process, the result of which is the release of ethanol and carbon dioxide. This was the first step towards, for example, industrial brewing. Without the discoveries of Buchner, and then Arthur Gardner, one could only dream of beer brands.
In 1929, the Arthur Garden and Hans von Euler-Helpin, mentioned above, received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry “For the study of the fermentation of sugar and fermentation enzymes”. Biochemists continued the research begun by Buchner, greatly expanding and complicating them. So Garden and Helpin laid the foundation for studying the breakdown of sugars in the human body as part of its metabolism.
So, the Nobel Prize is much closer than it seems. We carry some in our pockets, some of which we can sip from a glass … The list goes on, because it is so interesting to realize that great science comes down to fussy humanity and continues to improve its existence. More entertaining information will be available on December 7th at Nobilitet, the Kiev party on the eve of the 2019 Nobel Prize, which is being held for the third year in a row. You can get to it by buying a ticket in advance on the event’s website, and until November 29 inclusive it is also possible at a discount, thanks to the Black Friday promotion.