Astrologers are not mistaken: the movement of the planets really affects our lives. The Soviet ethnographer Lev Gumilyov was in solidarity with them (for which his colleagues called him “pseudoscientists”, and only three post-Soviet countries recognized the work of his life). Gumilyov was not limited to academic canons and was still a nonconformist: in his youth he was twice imprisoned and spent 12 years in political camps. True, scientific theories have nothing to do with it – the scientist was accused of anti-Soviet ideas.
This did not stop him from making a university career and creating one of the most controversial theories of the ethnos. His lectures were gathered in crowded halls of enthusiastic listeners, and scientists still argue about the theory of passionarity. All because his theory explains everything – well, or almost everything. Depends on how much you believe in it.
Theory of Everything
Gumilev did not go into the calculations and analysis of socio-political movements: he explained the theory of passionarity by cosmic forces. We are not so far from the truth, blaming the moon phase for all misfortunes. According to Gumilyov, she determines the number of wars on the planet, outbreaks of revolutions and periods of calm. But do not rush to conclusions: Gumilyov was still a scientist and found a logical explanation for everything. It is not just that his theory is taught to young political scientists and sociologists in the vast Ukraine, Russia and Kazakhstan.
What is passionarity and what does the cosmos have to do with it?
Passionarity is an overabundance of “biochemical energy” coming from space at a certain time to a certain part of the planet (where an ethnic group appears as a result of revolutionary events). An excess of energy leads to the fact that people are charged with it: they become prone to sacrifice in the name of high goals, patriotic feelings beat over the edge. In his theory, the scientist described nine levels of passionarity: from non-penetrating to the influence of the cosmos to true passionaries. As an example of the latter, he put Jeanne d’Arc, Napoleon Bonaparte, Alexander of Macedon, Joseph Stalin. Passionaries are literally ready for anything: these are real revolutionaries who do not care about their own lives or the lives of compatriots. They need change, coups, and blind adherence to the ideal.
The stars are to blame
At first glance, this theory is nothing new: activists have always existed, and revolutions are part of the natural course of human history. But Gumilev was the first to suggest that it all depends on cosmic radiation. “What is the nature of this radiation? – asks the scientist in the book “The End and the Beginning Again”. – Here we can only build hypotheses. There are two of them. The first is about the possible connection of passionate shocks with long-term variation in solar activity. The second hypothesis is about a possible connection with supernova explosions. ” Gumilyov was not an astrophysicist or even an astrologer – he was a geographer, historian and archaeologist, and also a romantic – his parents were poets Anna Akhmatova and Nikolai Gumilyov. Perhaps it was they who taught the boy to search for poetry in such mundane things as ethnic groups and geography.
How it works
Controversial in his theory was not passionarity at all, but where it came from. Passion shocks are cosmic energy that leads to “mutations” on the planet: for example, an increase in the level of drive, social movements and subsequently the emergence of ethnic groups. So, for example, the Slavs appeared in the first century AD, and 18 centuries before that – the Egyptians, which was accompanied by the collapse of the Ancient Egyptian kingdom, the change of religion and the cessation of the construction of the pyramids.
Passionary tremors on the map are similar to the “scars” of the planet: their length could reach several thousand kilometers, and the width – only 200 kilometers. In one such strip, several unrelated ethnic groups appeared at once, and they lasted only a few years (this was enough for the emergence of new nationalities).
From theory to practice
It turns out that all revolutions, wars and coups d'etat are a consequence of the influence of space. The theory is dangerous in that it could justify the actions of German Nazis, genocides, racial hatred, national conflicts and other things that humanity is not proud of. Indeed, the influence of space is a very convenient excuse. Gumilyov’s theory can really explain everything, but sometimes this is not worth it.
Historians, ethnographers and archaeologists criticized Gumilyov for being unscientific and manipulating facts (after all, space is still not the most reliable explanation in the social sciences). But we have a counter-question to them: why do we recognize that space affects the ebbs and flows of the ocean, but not the people living on the same planet? Can we doubt the influence of retrograde Mercury? And in the horoscope, which says that twins tend to breathe?
Gumilyov’s theory may have several scientific uncertainties, but it is indispensable for everyday life. It allows you to go beyond strict positivism and look very differently at what is happening in our own life. Maybe the strange behavior of the former is nothing but flashes on the Sun? Is the desire to eat a kilogram of chocolate cake just a phase of the moon? Anyway, Gumilyov’s cosmic theory would find good application in psychology. After all, it’s much better to blame all the troubles of the planet than yourself and others.
See also: All according to Freud: How the Austrian psychologist changed our outlook on art